Real-Life Challenge: Diabetes Mellitus
A 50-year-old man became lethargic and drowsy with flushed dry skin after eating a large meal. His family became concerned when he was difficult to rouse, and he had a fruity odor to his breath. He was transported to an emergency facility, where he gave a history of extreme thirst, hunger, and frequent urination. He recently had an upper-respiratory infection that was slow to clear. Adult-onset diabetes mellitus is suspected.
1. Which blood test would be ordered?
2. What are normal blood glucose levels?
3. What are some of the possible causes of adultonset type 2 diabetes mellitus?
4. In addition to the symptoms previously described, what else might be observed?
5. What determines the course of the treatment prescribed?
6. Why is glucose-level monitoring important?
7. What patient teaching should be considered?
8. Why is diet important? 9. Explain how insulin works.
10. What is the therapeutic action of the sulfonylureas?
11. How does metformin (Glucophage) reduce blood glucose levels?