Types of Mental Disorders


The American Psychiatric Association is in charge of publishing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM -5) to guide healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of mental conditions (Kovel, 2016). There are varieties of mental disorders affecting many people in the world, both the afflicted and their families. These mental disorders include bipolar disorder, dementia, and autism. The general class of these mental conditions is mood disorders, cognitive disorders, and developmental disorders.

Bipolar Disorder

This disorder affects about 45 million people globally and is a mental illness that affects the moods of the person having the disorder. A person who exhibits bipolar disorder experiences episodes of being manic when feeling high and depression when feeling low. There are periods of normal moods in between high and low mood variations. Most people experience variations in their moods, with the difference between normal mood change and bipolar disorder. The variations can be distressing and have a big impact on one’s life (Grunze, 2015). The high and low moods go to the extremes, and the mood swings are overwhelming. In a medical interview, a medical professional may observe irritable moods, inflated self-esteem, rapid speech, and over activity, which decreases the need for sleep.


Dementia leads to the deterioration of the ability to process thoughts, which is the cognitive function not caused by healthy aging. Degeneration of social behavior and emotional control precedes the more acute diagnosis. The illness leads to a decline in memory and thinking skills severely enough to impact the person’s ability to carry out daily activities and communications skills (Birks and Harvey, 2018). In an interview process, the most noticeable symptoms include a hard time remembering the names of relatives and where they are at a specific time. There is also a loss of interest as well as being paranoid and suspicious of the people around them.


Autism disorder usually has a childhood-onset that persists into adulthood, causing impairment or delay in functions related to the central nervous system (Hobson, 2019). Autism disorder follows a steady course rather than having occurring in episodes of remissions and relapses, usually the sequence for other mental disorders. The disease impairers social behavior, communication, and patients have a narrow range of activities unique to them carried repetitively. A medical interview professional can prove autism disorder where the person has a repetitive behavior category such as unusual interest in stimuli, including staring for long times at lights in the room and difficulty in social communication.




Birks, J. S., & Harvey, R. J. (2018). Donepezil for dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database of systematic reviews, (6).

Grunze, H. (2015). Bipolar disorder. In Neurobiology of brain disorders (pp. 655-673). Academic Press.

Hobson, R. P. (2019). Autism and the development of the mind. Routledge.

Kovel, J. (2016). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition III. Einstein Quarterly Journal of Biology and Medicine, 1(2), 103-104.

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