State two reasons why SNPs have superseded RFLP analysis.

1. Microarray or gene chip technology relies on taking an individual’s RNA, making a single strand cDNA, and placing a drop of this onto a chip with fluorescently labeled single strand DNA. Where does the chip DNA come from and what can happen when these mix? PP 23 slide 5

2. State two reasons why SNPs have superseded RFLP analysis. PP 23-SLIDE 2

3. Do antibiotics cause antibiotic resistance in bacteria? Explain. PP:24

4. Antibiotic resistance genes move swiftly in a population of bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. One method of horizontal gene transfer is generalized transduction. Explain how this works. PP: 24 slide 11

5. What is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and why is it used to investigate polygenic inheritance? PP: 25

6. .Ras is a proto-oncogene and become oncogenic when mutated. How does Ras gene product (a protein) function in healthy cells? PP 26

7. How does a mutation of the RB1 gene lead to a cancer like retinoblastoma?
PP 26

8. How can a bacterial defense, like CRISPR-Cas9, precisely cut genes (in other words, how does interact with target DNA to make cuts)? PP:27

9. How is therapeutic DNA introduced in patients with Leber Congenital Amaurosis? PP:27

10. How do the cytochrome P450 proteins affect drug responses. Give one example.

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