Research Writing Assignment

Instructions: The GMO Research Paper is a combination of the GMO Health paper and the GMO Biodiversity paper. The third and final section is Labeling. The Labeling section is two pages and is organized by three paragraphs: Cost, Labeling, and Right to Know, in that order. You have the majority of your paper written. Just add the Labeling section and combine all sections using transitions. Use no more than twelve sources for the Research Paper.

You will combine the sections giving attention to transitions between the sections of the research paper. For example, connect the Health and Biodiversity sections using appropriate transitions. Then transition to the the Labeling section. As we mentioned before, you will need a thorough introduction and conclusion for the Research paper. The introductions and conclusions for the Health and Biodiversity sections will need to be deleted or worked into the new Research Paper introduction and conclusion.

Please review the pages in our text and in the library resources page for the appropriate format for the Works Cited page and the format for the citations. Please review the comments I have made on your last papers that have addressed problems with the citations and Works Cited: Do not use APA format. You must use MLA. Make sure that the citations match the Works Cited entries exactly. Make sure for every citation there is an entry on the Works Cited page. Make sure you alphabetize the Works Cited page. Make sure you indent the second and subsequent lines on the Works Cited entries.

Do not plagiarize. Everything taken from a source must be cited. Please see your syllabus for an extended discussion of plagiarism.

The Research Paper due date will be posted in the Assignment tab in Canvas. Do not turn in the paper late. Read your syllabus regarding late papers. I do not accept late papers–no excuses.

Please read the directions carefully. Many errors can be avoided by reading the directions.

The following is a repetition of some of the most important information for your paper:

Research Paper—a ten-page paper.

The majority of your Research Paper is completed because it will contain the following information that you already prepared for the Health and the Cause and Effect Papers.

One major problem on papers was that on almost all papers, your POV was not clear. Some of you asked questions that were stated in the directions. Another major problem was that some of you used too many sources; the body paragraphs were use of source after source after source. You need to write the paper and use source minimally as support. In the directions for the Cause and Effect Paper it says: “use between eight and ten articles for the six-page essay—not 20! USE Twelve sources for the Research Paper—not 20!

You will need to make modifications to your Research Paper and clean up the order of ideas, the outline format and the specific mention of the topics and subtopics. You must add a thorough introduction and conclusion for the paper. The papers must reflect the outline. The citations and Works Cited must be formatted and must match.

Word document only will be accepted.

You have a chance to get a good grade on the Research Paper because the bulk of the information is already written. Just clean up the paper and follow the outline.

Some sources you find in the databases will cover multiple topics listed in the outline. Some sources you find may only over one small section of your outline. Remember not to use a source more than two times—we have mentioned this all semester.

 

Below is one of the essays that have to be merged with the other essay which is attached below.

 

Essay Number (1) GMO Cause and Effect

GMOs stand for genetically modified organisms. These organisms are defined according to WHO as organisms (microorganisms, plants or animals) in which their genetic material is altered in a way that doesn’t occur naturally by mating or natural recombination. These organisms are therefore prepared in a laboratory whereby modern biotechnology techniques are applied to them altering them genetically. During this process, individual genes can be collected and transferred from one organism to another. These organisms are termed as transgenic organisms. They possess the desirable qualities which are then used to breed in subsequent generations leading to formation of newer organisms (Phillips, 2008). Genetically modified organisms tend to affect various aspects of the environment either positively or negatively. These organisms impact greatly on the agriculture sector where seeds are modified genetically before they are planted to increase crop yields and to survive in harsh environments. They also tend to have great effect on the living organisms especially those that are not supposed to have contact with the genetically modified plants. Genetically modified organisms are also implicated with genetic pollution/alteration. This paper will in details expound more on genetically engineered organisms as well as depict their positive and negative impacts on the environment in terms of agriculture, living organisms as well as in genetic pollution.

Effects on agriculture

 

Genetically engineered crops have both direct and indirect effects on the environment. The use of these crops was brought up by the need to produce crops that could survive harsh environments, reduce the need for pesticides and most importantly increase crop yields. This will therefore create a state of food security in the world. Roundup is a herbicide whose active ingredient is glyphosate. This glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the US and is normally used in association with genetically modified crops. It was created originally by Monsanto and then acquired by Bayer in 2018. Glyphosate is extensively used since it is considered a safe herbicide that requires a very minimal amount to control weeds. It also has very low toxicity and has a short life when used in the environment. Genetically modified crops have a Roundup Ready trait which is desirable for plant survival. Glyphosate affects an enzyme in plants called EPSPS which is not found in humans and animals and therefore kills the plant. As genetically modified crops possess the Roundup Ready trait they inactive the glyphosate’s ability to affect the enzyme hence genetically modified crops do not die like the normal weeds (Vera, et al., 2010). Genetically modified seeds have increased resistance of weeds to herbicides. These weeds are called superweeds. The greater use of herbicides has been the most contributing factor to increase in weed resistance. The generation of super weeds has led to so many arguments from different scientists depending on the evidence presented. Some scientists claim that since the introduction of glyphosate resistant genetically modified crops about thirty eight weeds have shown resistance. These super weeds have then shown considerable siphon of nutrients and created competition with the crops reducing crop yields. Other scientists attribute the development of super weeds to the continued use of the same herbicide over a long period of time rather than due to use of genetically engineered crops. Genetically Modified plants tend to have a more positive than negative effect on the soil. They tend to improve the quality of health of the soil. This is due to the fact that use of herbicides to destroy weeds reduces the need to constantly till the land hence protecting it from soil erosions, runoffs as well as from emission of greenhouse gases. Evidence shows that genetically modified crops have no adverse effects toward the soil. Bt- endotoxin produced by some of these crops has been shown to be organic in nature as a pesticide and it has a short life in the soil. In addition, genetically modified crops degrade in a manner similar to that of other non-Genetically modified crops and hence have no added effect towards the environment. Corn is genetically modified by taking different specific strains of maize and genetically engineering them to have desirable agricultural traits that make them resistant to herbicides as well as to pests. This maize tends to have different impacts on the environment and on different plants through the gene flow. Evidence shows that genetically modified maize increases crop yield by up to 10%. Bt-corn is resistant to pests and this significantly increases the crop yields. It has also shown great resistance to herbicides as well as to plant viruses. Health impacts of genetically modified corn include increased risk of developing carcinomas due to increased use of carcinogens and increased possibilities of developing organ damage. However this is still under experimentation. Soy beans have also been impacted by genetic modification. They show great amounts of herbicides resistance as well as pest resistance. This therefore increases savings as well as reduces environmental pollution immensely. Wheat, beet pulp and tomatoes have also been subject to genetic engineering. The creation of such drought tolerant crops has led to increased productivity and agricultural sustainability. These crops are heat tolerant which leads to a boost in the crop yields. These crops contribute to use of chemicals that may be harmful to the environment. In addition, they have also increased cases of super weeds as well as super pests that are resistant to herbicides and pesticides respectively. These adverse effects have created a state of confusion among scientists. This has led to worldwide concern on the acceptance of genetically modified crops.

 

Genetically modified crops have a great impact on living organisms. This includes both target and non- target organisms. These genetically engineered organisms have the ability to reproduce and exist as persistent members of the ecosystem. The creation of these crops targeted the elimination of pests and weeds to allow crops to grow properly in the environment with minimal competition for growth factors. Bee Colony Collapse Disorder was a crisis discovered in 2006 whereby worker bees migrated from the colony leaving the queen bee and a reduced number of immature bees to ensure the sustainability of the colony. This was attributed to the use of genetically modified crops and toxic pesticides such as round up. However, there is no evidence to support this claim and further investigations have shown no involvement of genetically modified crops. Monarch butterflies are nearing the point of extinction. This is due to the use of herbicides such as glyphosate which kill the milkweeds where these butterflies lay their eggs (Thogmartin, et al.,2017). Frankenfish is a type of genetically modified salmon. It’s made from genetically engineering DNA from Chinook salmon with genetic information from an ocean pout which is eel-like in nature. This fish tends to grow twice as fast as a wild salmon and hence leads to a reduction in the production cost of fish (Noah, 2012). This was the first genetically engineered animal product and was therefore met with a lot of controversy when it was approved by the FDA in 2013. Its impact on human health was the major point of concern but scientists have termed it as safe for human consumption. Birds such as chicken and turkeys do not undergo genetic modification. They are selected naturally by crossbreeding those with desirable characteristics. The selective cross breeding has led to the production of modern chicken which include layers and broilers species. The layers are breed selectively for their eggs while broilers are reared for meat. Genetic modification has been used to produce albino lizards. This is still undergoing research and the medical breakthrough makes them the first genetically modified reptiles in the world. The use of glyphosate herbicides has been implicated in the reduced number of amphibians as the recent evidence shows their toxicities to these animals. Mammals have also been greatly impacted by genetic modification. Various animals have been cross bred to create transgenic animals. The first transgenic mammals to be created were mice which were used for biomedical studies. Modification of most animals and plants is based on the rules of inheritance discovered by Mendel. Transgenic animals have formed the basis for research and studies which are essential. Transgenic animals are also used as generation models for the study of human diseases. This is done by determining genes that easily cause the disease and creating transgenic animals that are sensitive to the disease. The transgenic-disease sensitive animals form the basis for validating newer medications. Domestic animals such as sheep and cows are also subject to genetic modification. The dolly sheep was created through cloning of cells from the mammary glands of a Finn Dorset ewe (García, 2015). Cows use genetically modified products such as bovine growth hormone to boost their milk production (Sørensen, et al.,2002). Rodents form the basis of scientific study of genetically modified foods. They are used to study the possibilities of development of cancers and tumors through the use of these plants. They are also used to test the toxicity of pesticides such as Round up. Round up and genetically modified corn have shown evidence of causing tumors in rats (Mesnage, et al.,2015). Human beings are affected negatively by genetically modified foods. Some develop allergies to the genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has been classified recently by the World Health Organization as a potential carcinogen that increases the risk of getting Non Hodgkin lymphoma. It is therefore a toxic product to human beings. Other health impacts include organ damage and toxicity.

 

Genetically Modified Organism can be cross bred with their wild relatives. This may result in uncontrolled growth of a population that is genetically engineered. These organisms tend to grow faster than natural organisms and therefore create unhealthy competition for their wild relatives. An example of such a rapid growing organism is the Frankenfish which is taking over the market over the wild Atlantic salmon. Various approaches have been taken to prevent an increased number of Genetically Engineered Organisms. This includes: making the seeds from the second generation sterile as well as making their fertility to be dependent on the application of a chemical.

Genome contamination involves the uncontrolled movement of genetic material from a Genetically Modified Organism to a wild relative through gene flow. This can occur in various ways pollination or escape of seeds. An epicyte gene makes the sperm in males sterile. Some foods in the US are under research to determine whether they contain this specific gene that affects the sperms of both male humans and male animals. This was discovered due to evidence of human antibodies that affect the sperm. Genetic modification makes the new organism adapt to harsh changes in the environment. Organisms that are able to adapt evolve and are naturally selected of genetically engineered to survive in the environment. Those that fail to adapt undergo extinction since their natural habitats required for survival have been destroyed.

 

In conclusion Genetically Modified Organisms have proven to be beneficial to the environment. The pros seem to be more than the cons. The world is moving towards accepting these genetically modified crops and animals as a source of food. These organisms have shown great impact on the agricultural sector and on living organism as discussed above. There has also been evidence of genetic pollution and various ways in which it can be avoided.

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