In 2020 John Brown was wrestled to the ground by security guards at a grocery store in Toronto. He was handcuffed and kept face-down on the ground where he died of suffocation. He was suspected of shoplifting baby formula.
In 2004 a coroner’s inquest ruled that Brown’s death was accidental and that he died of asphyxiation with complications from cocaine use. One of the findings of the inquest was that Brown might not have died if the security guards had been trained in the use of force tactics and lifesaving. The inquiry made 22 recommendations to reform Ontario’s security industry. For example, it recommended that all in-house security guards and bouncers in Ontario be licensed and receive mandatory training in areas such as first aid, CPR and the use of force, as well the use of handcuffs and batons.
The Ontario government responded to the inquest’s recommendations with amendments to the Private Security and Investigative Services Act in 2005. In addition to mandatory licensing for all security personnel and standards for uniforms, equipment and vehicles used, the Act also includes mandatory training standards. The basic training content related to training standards was developed to include knowledge or relevant legislation, power of arrest; use of force; communication and public relations skills; first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); writing skills, and the use of restraint equipment. The regulations require that individuals must take a mandatory basic training course and pass the basic ministry test before they are able to apply for a security guard licence.
The security guard basic training program must consist of 8 in-class hours and includes certification in Emergency Level First Aid.
The security guard training program has proven to be a success over the years. For example, it is estimated that in the first year that the training program was rolled out in Ontario, payouts to families of civilians killed accidentally by security guards declined from $1,000,000 to $225,000. Cumulative costs of administering the training program for these companies included facilities rental of ($3,000), trainer salaries ($35,000), materials ($1,000) and administrative support ($3,500). Employee salary opportunity costs were calculated at $25 per hour for 1,000 security guards who were trained in the province.
Answer the following questions making sure to make your recommendations specific to the case. Do not provide generic answers based purely on theory.
1. What are some barriers that might inhibit the transfer of training of the security guard
training program? (10 marks)
2. Discuss how the trainer could use stimulus variability and identical elements to
reinforce learning during delivery of the training program to security guards.
3. Discuss how evaluation of the security guard training program could be done using
Kirkpatrick’s model. (10 marks)
b) For each of the following training evaluation variables write one question that could
be used to assess whether the training was effective:
ii) Organizational results (10 marks)
4. Calculate the ROI after the first year of training for companies in Ontario who
participated in the security guard training program. (10 marks)