HOW THE WEB-BASED SIMULATIONS AFFECTED TO THE STUDENTS’ PERFOMANCE BASED ON THE HANDS-ON LABS IN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY COURSES.
A Reserch proposal
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Masters of Science in Technology Management
In the modern world, digital devices and computers are a way of life. Computers are frequently used and commonly accepted. Electronic devices and computers help us communicating instantaneously with people all around the world. More and more computers are being used for education. Students all ages learn content material and earn high school and college credit in front of computers. Online learning happens in different formats. Some classes are taught exclusively online while others are more of a blend of some face-face instruction and some online learning. This paper will give an understanding of how technology will affect the education and learning system, and results of the “web-based simulations affected the students’ performance based on the hands-on labs in engineering technology courses.”
According to Tabata, L., & Johnsrud, L. (2008). Higher education has experienced sudden and unequaled challenges from the impact of information technology which affects a wide range of diverse institutional activities and functions. These challenges have forced universities and educational institutions to respond in new and creative ways that refuse many of the traditional perceptions about how education should be delivered.
Background for study.
There is a debate about online education and face to face education, which is better from the learning experience. When comparing the to the Education Department’s National Center for Education Statistics (US departent of education , 2019) while dropping the overall postsecondary enrollment by 90 000 the online student’s enrolments grew by 350 000 which is about 5.7 presents (US departent of education , 2019).that mean online education become the one essential thing which cannot be neglected
When it comes to engineering technology classes there are arguments that engineering students need to be exposed to hand on experience while there is another argument that physical laboratories consuming a lot of resources and becoming waste generator to the universities. The problem addressed in this study is how the web-based simulations can be affected by the students’ performance (comparative study above the grades) with respect to the Hands-on labs.
In the southeast Missouri university has the limitations when they are offering 100% online base degrees in the engineering technology area. (southeast Missouri State, 2020).because they could not offer the most of technology classes that are associated with physical labs. And a study was done by the University of Arkansas about the student’s satisfaction using simulations or lab teach about properties about ice finding that simulations would is a good introduction to laboratory principles and concepts, resulting in increased student learning (Philip G. Crandall, 2015). Another research conduct about the science research (Janet Kelly, 2008) suggests that online base simulation is not effective as hand-on labs but with the hybrid methods is more effective than a hand on experience.
These studies were done base on the one computer science classes and there is lack of studies about the robotic technology labs and the electrical engineering technology labs simulations. Moreover, past research considering the qualitative effects of the simulation and combine with the drawback of online classes. This research will be focused on efficiency of simulations as an online tool for robotic programming and PLC labs which need to have a lot of space and expense to set up in hand on experience laboratories.
In this research try to find out the gap between online simulation tool vs and hand-on experience lab and that can be helping to convert most of the electrical and industrial technology courser to online classes. Which will be helping to offer more online classes that are conducting in the department of engineering and technology in Southeast Missouri university. Also, this case study will fill the gap in the simulation base teaching for engineering technology because past research is based on the medical field and information technology fields.
This research is needed because technology is changing the way our students learn, and not always for the better. According to one teacher’s survey of the problem with technology in education (Washington post-2013):
In another survey, university students were asked how often they use their cell phones while in class for non- class-related uses (Baron 2015). The average college student reported such use 11 times daily. 15% of the students used more than thirty times during class. This research is important to understand the impact of digital devices on students because all of this activity comes at a price in learning.
The purpose of this study to examine students’ performance on web-based courses vs hands-on labs in engineering courses. The design methods included cognitive apprenticeship domains of modeling, scaffolding, and exploration in traditional lecture-lab activities on students’ problem-solving skills for circuit construction. In this study, by using some data and observations to explore the following research question and sub-problems.
1.) Effect of technology on digital learning.
2.) Does the use of simulation improve student’s learning outcomes?
The following are the research questions of this study.
Question 1. What is the effect of technology on digital learning.?
Question 2. Does the use of simulation improve student’s learning.?
The limitations of this research are it is impersonal. No matter how hard we try to fully transfer human communication to the online platform, no matter how natural it seems to form relationships behind computer screens, a virtual environment is simply not human. Nothing can replace human contact. And it may be a solo act, this learning method sometimes makes learners feel they lack support and reassurance.
Digital is a word with many possible meanings and assumptions. The literal meaning references technology or encoding information in ones and zeros. We live in the digital age, an era distinct because of ubiquitous networking and prolific use of technology in almost all aspects of daily human life (Wang, V.X., 2013). We have been living in this era since the internet began to transform how we live, making digital interaction a primary characteristic of human activity (Beck, D., & Hughes, C., 2013). Despite the process of developing understanding remains a personal journey of experience.
According to Peter et al. (2017), Web-based simulations studies aim to help in understanding various ways in which Web-based simulations may be affected by learners’ performance in regards to the hands-on laboratories, especially in the engineering programs. Debates concerning online education and face to face education aims to determine which is better between the two. This literature will focus on simulation efficiency as an online tool and the PLC laboratories that need space and expenses established in hands-on experience labs. The study attempts to determine the gap that exists between the hands-on experience labs and online simulation tools, which can be used in converting industrial and electrical technology programs to online classes.
According to Eskrootchi & Oskrochi (2010), the approach that points to project-based learning must be implemented to affect learning. The integration of computer-based simulation models requires careful planning and implementation to ensure that projected based learning is effective. This literature states that several studies suggest that the project-based simulation in modeling and visualization changed some areas of science and appears promising for middle and elementary learning. According to this literature, integrating such a model in project-based learning needs proper planning and effective implementation of the plan. According to the article authors, simulations of multifaceted associations, including links between constituents of geometric constructions, and the local minimum position in a three-dimensional surface, may help students to understand some hard concepts. The literature also shows that considerable studies suggest that simulations models have not been effectively implemented. Usually, simulations fail due to their complexities that make it hard for people to understand. However, scholars have noted substantive growth in learners’ comprehension of scientific concepts and inspiration while using the simulation software.
Liu & Su, (2011), in a study, examines the effectiveness of the use of computer simulations in helping learners to understand residential wiring. Online learning settings, including computer simulations, are widely accepted as a tool used for supporting scientific studies. According to the authors, interactions through the use of computers as learning resources may engage learners more in leaning and thus requires high cognitive load. This literature, however, depicts that high cognitive load appeared to contribute to outstanding performance, and the results show students’ mental exertions are invested in creating meaning in the virtual learning settings. The literature explains that establishing computer-based learning settings for learning science may be area specific. The design instructors should concentrate on specific aspects that improve interactions between the learning resources and users to promote this understanding.
Also, the review explains how scholars may gain benefits from a combination of students’ achievements performance and cognitive level loads that help them researching the user’s effectiveness in the management of perceptive resources in multimedia learning settings. The authors also assert that the retrospective steps of the cognitive level load may weaken the validity of the evidence. Therefore, as computer-based learning settings are idealized to help in serving as virtual options for learning circumstances, more studies are required to assess if learning in virtual settings can assist students in addressing the concerns that result from irregularities that occur while dealing with real-life objects.
Crandall et al. (2015) state that it is hard to provide food chemistry learners with conventional, hands-on lab experiences because of lack of funds for the equipment of learning, small lab spaces, and the nature of distance education. According to the authors, a conventional wet laboratory workout was established to show the impacts of the tangible properties of the formation of ice while making quality sorbets, differing amounts of water, stabilizer, and sugar. The literature reviews that the wet laboratory was compared with a detective and simulated based crime scene probe to determine the reason popular sorbet, which had become stiff. Such a combination offers a crucial review of the content quality when enabling web design experts to create engaging contexts and the story for the game. The authors further assert that collecting particular feedbacks in the virtual lab from learners before the implementation is important in the course. It is important to consider the prompt prototyping method where learners’ response is involved in several instances in the development process to develop the virtual laboratory. Therefore, it is important to give opportunities for learners to study in various ways
Sauter et al. (2013) state that hands-on activities play a core role in education science. According to the authors, the latest technological improvements have contributed to the rise in the usage of tools, which increases hands-on science learning through interactions with computers. However, the inception of computer-based tools in the science lab repertoires has evoked substantive arguments. In the approach of assessing the utility of the tools, there is a need to concentrate on unpacking the learning and mental simulations implications and the remote laboratories that support the science learning objectives. The literature further points out the distinctions of the affordability of the remote laboratories and simulations models that are used for learning science and the crucial aspects of the user interface.
The research questions are designed for exploring the effect of computer simulations design features on students problem-solving skills in engineering technology-based courses. This educational strategy is used in a problem-solving learning environment in engineering and also used to explore learner and domain knowledge growth.
A comparative case study methodology was selected to investigate the research questions. According to Yin, R.K., (2013), a case study approach was employed since the student group was small in size. And the study observes that the case study methods involve three roles: exploratory/ descriptive, evaluation, and hypothesis testing. The common use of research methodology is evaluation, which deals with identifying potential explanations for the success or failure of any research project. The second type, exploratory and descriptive case studies, examines the development and characteristics of phenomena often intending to develop hypotheses of a cause-effect relationship. Finally, the use of case study research for hypothesis testing involves tests for casual relationships by comparing generalizations from case study findings with underlying theory (Yin, R.K., 2013). In this research framework, investigators first conduct a quantitative study to address the research questions, and they collect and analyze the data quantitatively. To further support the quantitative findings, qualitative methods are used to explain the unexpected results, significant or not-significant quantitative finds, and description of the context within the findings are situated (Taher, M., & Khan, A., 2015).
Research Design and Theoretical Framework
According to Taher, M., & Khan, A., 2015, the research study will be engaged on a group of 25-30 students enrolled in a technical class of the technology-based program, students will first attend and complete the lecture part that gave them understanding, knowledge in building circuits using both techniques of hardware and simulation software. The whole class will be given a simulation lab of building circuits using simulation software for each of the topics covered in the class after practicing the circuits in the class. The labs will be given on a specific topic and the students also given lab assignments that provided an equal and independent chance to build circuits using simulations software. After completing all practice labs, students will be given a two-hour problem-solving exercise to assess the acquisition of domain knowledge. Then the grades were compared with each other groups and the grades will be then analyzed.
two groups with respect to baseline knowledge of concepts of lab (robotics arms programming or PLC lab).
The instructional efficiency of each treatment will be calculated by dividing students’ standardized mean achievement test scores (z scores) in different categories with the standardized mean rating of workload (van Gog & Paas, 2008).
The paper presented the impact of the use of computer simulation methods on students’ problem-solving skills. The case study is designed to analyze the effect that the use of computer simulation-based educational strategies has upon students learning and problem-solving skills in technology-based courses. There are two research questions in this case study which will help to understand the relationship between use of simulation and learning outcomes Two groups were used, and one was taught using simulations and hands-on instructional strategy and the other was exposed to hands-on instructions only. The findings reveal that simulations by itself are not very effective in promoting student learning. However, simulations become effective in promoting student learning when used in conjunction with a hands-on approach. The research will also reveal that the majority of students believe that the modeling is faster, simpler and easier because it allows quick changes for circuit modification, and beneficial in case of design of complex circuits.
Crandall, P. G., O’Bryan, C. A., Killian, S. A., Beck, D. E., Jarvis, N., & Clausen, E. (2015). A comparison of the degree of student satisfaction using simulation or a traditional wet lab to teach the physical properties of ice. Journal of Food Science Education, 14(1), 24-29.
Eskrootchi, R., & Oskrochi, G. R. (2010). A study of the efficacy of project-based learning integrated with computer-based simulation-STELLA. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 236-245.
Liu, H. C., & Su, I. H. (2011). Learning residential electrical wiring through computer simulation: The impact of computer‐based learning environments on student achievement and cognitive load. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), 598-607.
Peters, M., Eicher, J. J., van Niekerk, D. D., Waltemath, D., & Snoep, J. L. (2017). The JWS online simulation database. Bioinformatics, 33(10), 1589-1590.
Sauter, M., Uttal, D. H., Rapp, D. N., Downing, M., & Jona, K. (2013). Getting real: the authenticity of remote labs and simulations for science learning. Distance Education, 34(1), 37-47.
Baron, N. (2015) Words Onscreen: The Fate of Reading in a Digital World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beck, D., & Hughes, C. (2013). Engaging Adult Learners with Innovative Technologies. In V. X. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Technologies for Improving 21st Century Workforce: Tools for Lifelong Learning (pp. 26–41). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2181-7.ch003
Campbell, J. O., Bourne, J. R., Mosterman, P. J., & Brodersen, A. J. (2002). The Effectiveness of Learning Simulations for Electronic Laboratories. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(1), 81–87. doi: 10.1002/j.2168-9830.2002.tb00675.x
kulyk, D. (2017). What Does it Mean to “Take Ownership of Your Learning”? Lifelong Learner Inspired by a Growth Mindset. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@kulykdenys/what-does-it-mean-to-take-ownership-of-your-learning-fd14e4cde7d7
Morris, N. P. (2014). How Digital Technologies, Blended Learning, and Moocs Will Impact the Future of Higher Education. International Conference on E-Learning, 401–404.
Sauter, M., Uttal, D., Rapp, D., Downing, M., & Jona, K. (2013). Getting real: the authenticity of remote labs and simulations for science learning. Distance Education, 34(1), 37–47. https://doi-org.proxy1.library.eiu.edu/10.1080/01587919.2013.770431
Tabata, L., & Johnsrud, L. (2008). The Impact of Faculty Attitudes Toward Technology, Distance Education, and Innovation. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 625–646. https://doi-org.proxy1.library.eiu.edu/10.1007/s11162-008-9094-7
Taher, M., & Khan, A. (2015). Effectiveness of Simulation versus Hands-on Labs: A Case Study for Teaching an Electronics Course. 2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition Proceedings
Wang, V. X. (2013). Reflective Learning in the Digital Age: Insights from Confucius and Mezirow. In V. X. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Technologies for Improving 21st Century Workforce: Tools for Lifelong Learning (pp. 421–440). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-9577-1.ch019
Washington Post, The (2013). ‘The problem with technology in schools – The Root DC Live.’ Jan. 28.
Yin, R. K., (2003). Case study research: Design and Methods.
Web-based simulations: how the web-based simulations can be affected by the students’ performance with respect to the Hands-on labs in engineering technology courses.
There is a debate about online education and face to face education, which is better from the learning experience. When comparing the to the Education Department’s National Center for Education Statistics(US departent of education , 2019) while dropping the overall postsecondary enrollment by 90 000 the online student’s enrolments grew by 350 000 which is about 5.7 presents(US departent of education , 2019).that mean online education become the one essential thing which cannot be neglected
When it comes to engineering technology classes there are arguments that engineering students need to be exposed to hand on experience while there is another argument that physical laboratories consuming lot of resources and becoming wastegenerator to the universities. The problem addressed in this study is how the web-based simulations can be affected by the students’ performance (comparative study above the grades) with respect to the Hands-on labs.
In the southeast Missouri university has the limitations when they are offering 100% online base degrees in the engineering technology area.(southeast Missouri State, 2020).because they could not offer the most of technology classes thatare associated with physical labs. Anda study was done by theUniversity of Arkansas about the student’s satisfaction using simulations or lab teach about properties about ice finding that simulations would is a good introduction to laboratory principles and concepts, resulting in increased student learning(Philip G. Crandall, 2015).Another research conduct about the science research(Janet Kelly, 2008) suggests that online base simulation is not effective as hand-on labs but with the hybrid methods is more effective than hand on experience.
These studies were done base on the one computer science classes and there is lack of studies about the robotic technology labs and the electrical engineering technology labs simulations. Moreover,past research considering the qualitative effects of the simulation and combine with the drawback of online classes. This research will be focused about efficiency of simulations as an online tool for robotic programming and PLC labs which need to have lot of space and expense to setup in hand on experience laboratories.
In this research try to find out the gap between online simulation tool vs and hand-on experience lab and that can be helping to convert most of the electrical and industrial technology courser to online classes. Which will be helping to offer more online classes that are conducting in the department of engineering and technology in Southeast Missouri university. Also, this case study will fill the gap in the simulation base teaching for engineering technology because past research isbased on the medical field and information technology fields.
Janet Kelly, C. B. (2008). science Simulations: Do They Make a Difference in Student Achievement and Attitude in. Fort Worth, Texas: Texas Christian University.
Philip G. Crandall, C. A. (2015). A Comparison of the Degree of Student. journal of food science education, 26-28.
Southeast Missouri State. (2020, 02 02). ONLINE DEGREES. Retrieved from semo: https://semo.edu/online/online-degrees/index.html#pane1
US Department of education. (2019, January 30). Enrollment and Employees in. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019021REV.pdf
IM691 2020 Spring
Complete a simplified version of your graduation thesis/applied project report. The detailed framework of the contents is outlined in page 2.
The paper should be prepared on a word processor, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins, using 12 pt font. Be sure to include a complete bibliographical reference. Ensure that the paper is free of spelling and grammatical errors. The paper should be at least15 pages in length (including cover page, abstract, table of contents and reference). Don’t forget to number the pages and include appropriate section headings. The paper is due at Sunday, May 3. Name your file Paper_FirstnameLastname. Points will be deducted for late submissions.Do not copy and paste a paragraph from a book or internet. Use your own words to write the report. Please submit the paper on Moodle.
The presentation should last 10 minutes.An electronic copy of the PPT with your recorded audios for each slide is due no later than Sunday, May 3. Name your file Slides_FirstnameLastname. Points will be deducted for late submissions.Please submit the slides on Moodle.
Project Report Framework for IM691
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Introduction (Topic and Background)
Statement of the Problem(Research Problem)
Significance of the Problem (Justification, Deficiency, Audience)
Purpose of the Research
Limitations of the Study
Definition of Terms
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Chapter 3: Methodology
Data Collection Plan (Where you will collect data and how the data relates to your research questions)
Chapter 4: Analysis, Conclusion and Future Work
Data Analysis Plan (Which data analysis approach you will use, why you select this approach and how the collected data could be analyzed using the approach)