ISO/OSI protocol stack

1. Consider sending a large file of F bits from Host A to Host B. There are three links (and two switches) between A and B, and the links are uncongested (that is, no queuing delays). Host A segments the file into segments of S bits each and adds 80 bits of header to each segment, forming packets of L = 80 + S bits. Each link has a transmission rate of R bps. Find the value of S that minimizes the delay of moving the file from Host A to Host B. Disregard propagation delay.

2. Early versions of TCP combined functions for both forwarding and reliable delivery. How are these TCP variants located in the ISO/OSI protocol stack? Why were forwarding functions later separated from TCP? What were the consequences?

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