Evolution, Darwinism Assignment | Custom Homework Help

Read the two word documents  ( Karen Simpertegui History and Emperor Ch’ien Lung to George) and respond to the questions
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  1. Emperor Ch’ien Lung to George III (1793)

Emperor Ch’ien Lung (r. 1735-1796) led a series of military campaigns against the Mongols and Turks that successfully enlarged China’s empire in the north and west by some 600,000 square miles. He also subdued a Tibetan revolution and succeeded in winning tribute from Burma and Vietnam to the south. Approached by an embassy from George III (r. 1760-1820) of Great Britain in 1793 requesting wider British access to China, Ch’ien saw no reason to reverse the Imperial Decree of 1757 restricting all European traders to a small section of Canton.  Thirty-nine years later, China, defeated by Britain in the First Opium War (1839-1842), found itself forced to grant many more concessions than those Ch’ien Lung rejected in this reply to George III.

You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas, nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilization, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday.  To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country’s produce.

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy.  In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favor and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence.  To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts.  I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all‑embracing kindness.

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country’s trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained.  It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home.  You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations.

Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements?  Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent?  The thing is utterly impracticable.  How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? . . .

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilization, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilization, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfill the duties of the State:  strange and costly objects do not interest me.  If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea.  As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things.  I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself.  I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behooves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. . . .

Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country’s barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favor, that foreign hongs [trading companies] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognize the Throne’s principle to “treat strangers from afar with indulgence,” and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. . . .

Regarding your nation’s worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable. . . .

  1. Imperialism

 

  1. Explain the significance of the quote below. Who wrote it? Who were they writing to? What did they say? Why is it important? Your answer should be two paragraphs. In the first, answer the previous questions. In the second, describe the significance in context with the broader history of imperialism.

Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfill the duties of the State:  strange and costly objects do not interest me.  If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea.  As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things.  I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself.  I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behooves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter.(20 points)

  1. Socialism
  1. Explain the significance of the quote below. Who wrote it? Who were they writing to? What did they say? Why is it important? In the second, describe the significance in context with the broader history of socialism. Your answer should be two paragraphs. In the first, answer the previous questions. In the second, describe the significance in context with the broader history of socialism. (20 points)

We derive our right to let the exceptional law continue from duty and from the fulfillment of the duty of Christian legislation. On the Progressive side, you call it “socialist legislation”; I prefer the term “Christian.” At the time of the Apostles, socialism went very much further still. If perhaps you will read the Bible once, you will find out various things about it in the Acts of the Apostles. I don’t go as far in our own times. But I get the courage for repressive measures only from my good intention of working to the end that, so far as a Christian-minded state society may do it, the real grievances, the real hardships of fate, about which the workers have to complain, will be alleviated and will be redressed.

III. Evolution

 

  1. What does this image mean? Who is the person being caricaturized? Please write a two paragraph essay explaining this man’s scientific theory. (20 points)
  1. In On the Origin of Species Darwin wrote the following:

Owing to this struggle for life, any variation, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if it be any degree profitable to an individual of any species, in its infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to external nature, will tend to the preservation of that individual, and will generally be inherited by its offspring. The offspring, also, will thus have a better chance of surviving, for, of the many individuals of any species which are periodically born, but a small number can survive.

In a 4-5 sentence paragraph, explain what Darwin meant. Then, in another 4-5 sentence paragraph, explain how the concept could be translated into “Social Darwinism.” (20 points)

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