Consider a 32-bit hash function defined as the concatenation of two 16-bit functions: XOR and RXOR, which are defined in Section 3.2 as “two simple hash functions.”

a. Will this checksum detect all errors caused by an odd number of error bits? Explain.

b. Will this checksum detect all errors caused by an even number of error bits? If not, characterize the error patterns that will cause the checksum to fail.

c. Comment on the effectiveness of this function for use as a hash function for authentication.

1. List the design objectives for HMAC.

2. What are the principal ingredients of a public-key cryptosystem?

3. List the public-key cryptography algorithm used in digital signatures, encryption/ decryption, and key exchange.

4. Briefly describe the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm