1. Differentiate centralized and distributed key management schemes.

2. Draw the architecture of centralized key management and explain it in detail.

3. Explain about Diffie–Hellman algorithm with a suitable example.

1. Prove that 2 is a primitive root of the prime number 11.

2. Find whether 3 is a primitive root of the prime number 11.

3. Compute the common shared secret key for the prime number p = 181 and primitive root k = 127. Consider the secret integer chosen by Alice is 48 and the secret integer chosen by Bob is 58.