|Part A: Short Essay Questions (45 points)
Answer the following questions as fully as possible within one double-spaced page. Each answer is worth up to 15 points. Longer answers are allowed. Provide in-text citations and a list of references (one at the end of the entire exam).
1. Write an essay, drawing on class materials, describing the phase (or phases) of the development of Ali Shariati’s political thought that had the most influence on “religious intelligentsia” reformists in post-Revolution Iran.(One Page)
2. Write an essay comparing and contrasting Mohammad Khatami’s and Sa‘id Hajjariyan’s interpretations of Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa that stressed the ‘preservation of the system.’(One Page)
3. Write an essay contrasting Mohammad Khatami’s conception of producing the “Qur’anic human” with Abdolkarim Sorush’s ideas about the proper role for a “religious government.”(One Page).
Part B: Long Essay Questions (55 points)
1) Write an essay describing and analyzing Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi’s theoretical, conceptual, and methodological orientation in his text Revolution and Its Discontents. What were his research questions and how did he go about collecting data to answer them? What were the main concepts he used to interpret textual and discursive data? Provide two examples of his literary criticism of the works of “religious intellectuals” and “Islamic leftists.” Describe and discuss his findings in terms of his idea of a “parallax view.” How was his conceptualization of a “parallax view” critiqued in class lecture? (30 points)(Two Pages)
2) Write an essay describing and analyzing Soner Cagaptay’s conceptual and ideological orientation in his text The New Sultan. How did he describe the crisis of modern Turkey and what did he propose as the main solution? Considering the “illiberal” and undemocratic 1980 and 1997 military coups, how did Cagaptay interpret Erdogan’s moves to neutralize the power of non-elected military councils and courts? How was the author’s slant critiqued in class lectures and what was offered as an alternative solution to the crisis in modern Turkey? (25 points)(Two Pages)