To meet these goals, students will consider in detail various ethical theories, in both their classical and contemporary expressions. Students are required to develop an investigative essay on the basis of possible topics in the field of biomedical ethics found at the end of this syllabus. Essays should 1) describe the issue, giving some history behind its development. 2) Describe the standpoints currently dominant in the debate. 3) Explain how the various sides in the debate respond to their opposition; and 4) Locate the student’s own standpoint (own conclusion) on the issue and explain the specific ethical principles (duty-oriented, virtue-oriented, utilitarian, etc.) involved in helping them arrive at the conclusion they do. Here are some of the theories that will be studied: egoism, ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue theory. Drawing upon those theories, the student will prepare a written (5-6 typed MLA or CMS-style pages) paper in response to instructor directed questions (at the end of syllabus) that address current moral problems in the field of biomedical ethics. Of particular importance is the student’s ability to use ethical reasoning to formulate reflective positions on some of the more pressing moral problems in contemporary society.