Working memory Assignment | Get Paper Help

Does post-study caffeine consumption have an effect on your working memory?

  • Style: MLA
  • Number of pages: 5 pages/double spaced (1375 words)
  • Number of source/references: 19

-MLA format
– do not use my abstract and intro and body from IRB as it does not make much sense but you can read through it. Bottom of the doc has more info
-I have attached the excel sheet with all the data of the participants. (Condition column : 1 = experimental group, 2= placebo group)
– I will also put resource links as to which journals I have accumulated as resources
– Also the word doc has every single thing that needs to be included on the paper. (read all the pages please)
– prior research has focused on long term memory and how caffeine impacts that but I want to see how working memory has effects by the use of caffeine using Dual-n -back task.
– Perform analysis on SPSS and do report them with the correct apa format and the exact figures in the output window

– Also make sure to talk about the Caffeine Questionnaire that is included in my IRB document.
– The Johns Hopkins link is what I am trying to do mine like but mine will be post and on short term.
– please be diligent with your work as it is practically my whole grade.
If you have any questions just shoot me an email.

Subject Age Condition ReactionTime MissedHits
1 21 1 151 10
2 21 1 124 12
3 20 1 97 9
4 24 1 223 20
5 24 1 174 5
6 24 1 235 16
7 24 1 257 5
8 18 1 102 10
9 24 1 255 20
10 24 1 171 8
11 20 1 258 8
12 19 1 221 9
13 24 1 123 10
14 22 1 155 12
15 23 1 210 7
16 20 1 258 11
17 20 1 101 12
18 21 1 246 18
19 21 1 162 7
20 19 1 165 15
21 21 1 97 11
22 18 1 204 14
23 20 1 259 5
24 23 1 260 6
25 21 1 97 11
26 24 1 117 5
27 22 1 208 5
28 23 1 150 8
29 23 1 260 15
30 18 1 207 16
31 23 1 126 14
32 19 1 128 10
33 18 1 223 5
34 20 1 118 14
35 18 1 249 6
36 20 1 141 13
37 24 1 105 14
38 24 1 92 10
39 21 1 170 9
40 24 1 83 13
41 20 1 163 9
42 18 1 251 13
43 19 1 229 18
44 24 1 182 20
45 19 1 140 10
46 20 1 142 13
47 19 1 107 8
48 22 1 256 7
49 21 1 154 18
50 21 1 241 20
51 29 2 191 19
52 30 2 54 21
53 29 2 167 16
54 29 2 140 25
55 27 2 100 19
56 26 2 144 26
57 30 2 101 22
58 30 2 59 11
59 27 2 147 30
60 26 2 104 12
61 30 2 135 30
62 28 2 58 10
63 29 2 88 25
64 29 2 82 10
65 30 2 111 16
66 30 2 182 19
67 26 2 111 22
68 28 2 80 10
69 26 2 93 16
70 29 2 158 23
71 27 2 138 24
72 30 2 111 10
73 27 2 156 30
74 30 2 122 17
75 27 2 161 19
76 28 2 77 25
77 29 2 62 14
78 26 2 157 26
79 25 2 170 15
80 25 2 64 13
81 27 2 118 22
82 30 2 165 22
83 28 2 180 22
84 28 2 83 21
85 25 2 84 12
86 29 2 98 17
87 29 2 140 22
88 25 2 107 17
89 25 2 50 16
90 28 2 88 10
91 25 2 113 19
92 27 2 111 11
93 28 2 117 12
94 29 2 149 19
95 27 2 112 22
96 26 2 154 22
97 25 2 107 10
98 28 2 114 14
99 28 2 68 17
100 25 2 106 23
3/31 Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests for Nominal Data How do we statistically test categorical and ordinal data? Privitera Ch 17



This week we will have group/individual meetings to finalize your data set for class project.
LAB Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests for Nominal Data Nonparametric Tests: Tests for Ordinal Data. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks T Test. The Mann-Whitney U Test. The Kruskal-Wallis H Test. How do we use SPSS to calculate non-parametric tests?  
4/2 Nonparametric Tests: Tests for Ordinal Data. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks T Test. The Mann-Whitney U Test. The Kruskal-Wallis H Test. What are the non-parametric “equivalent” tests of those we have already learned?  

Privitera Ch 18


4/7 Nonparametric Wrap up and Exam Review    
4/9 Exam 2    
4/14 Correlational Research: Bivariate Associations. Types of correlational tests How do we describe associations between variables using statistics? What is Pearson correlation? What is Spearman correlation? Privitera Ch 15


Morling Ch 7

Lab Linear Regression and Multiple Regression How do use correlations to make predictions about variables and their relationships? Privitera Ch 16


Lab Assignment 3: Creating linear regression and multiple regression models, controlling for variables.
4/16 Linear Regression and Multiple Regression How do use correlations to make predictions about variables and their relationships? Privitera Ch 16


4/21 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) What is MANOVA? How do we use ANOVA with more one dependent variable? What are the SPSS methods to use MANOVA? Fields

Ch 16

Lab Assignment 3 is due.
Lab Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) How do we use ANOVA with more one dependent variable? Fields Ch16
4/23 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) What kind of research designs uses MANOVA?

How do we use ANOVA with more one dependent variable?

Fields Ch16 Lab Assignment 4: Making multifactor analyses of variance, understanding and interpreting main effects and interactions.
4/24 NK Research Day?     Our class “Poster Day”

Draft Final Paper due

4/28 Principal Components and Factor Analysis What is Principal Components Analysis (PCA)? What is Factor Analysis? How do we use SPSS for these analyses? Tabachnick Ch 13
Lab Principal Components and Factor Analysis How do we use PCA and factor analysis in research? Howell Ch 13
4/30 Principal Components and Factor Analysis What is Principal Components Analysis (PCA)? What is Factor Analysis? Howell Ch 13 Lab Assignment 4 is due

Lab Assignment 5: Using SPSS to make principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis on given datasets and interpreting the results.

5/5 Reliability, Validity, and Multiple Item Scales How do we make the reliability and validity assessments of multiple item scales? What is Cronbach’s alpha? Warner Ch 21
5/7 In Class Final Examination Thursday, 5/7 from 8:00-10:00  
Monday 5/11/20 11:59 PM   Final Paper Due

Initial Application for Research Involving Human Subjects

Faculty Investigator: ______

Title of Project: ____Does post-study caffeine consumption have an effect on your working memory?

Project Duration (mo/yr – mo/yr)  __February 2020__ – ___April 2020___

Sponsored Project ___N/D_ Funding Agency__N/A_

Vulnerable Population:

Children, Minors____ Decisionally Impaired Persons____    Elderly and Aged___

International Research Subjects____  Minorities (including Women) ____

Pregnant Women, Fetuses, and Neonates___                        Students and Employees____

Terminally Ill Patients____                 Traumatized and Comatose Patients ____

IRB determines if a proposal is exempt but you may list your reasons for exemption.

Use appendix A to examine areas of possible exemption.  List reason/s for exemption.

Signature of Student Investigator ___________________________ Date ____________

Signature of Faculty Investigator ___________________________ Date ____________

(Other) Signature____________________________ Title________ Date ___________

  1. Abstract:

Caffeine is a largely consumed substance that has become readily available through lots of sources such as, caffeine pills, coffee bean snacks, espresso shots and local coffee shops across the world. Caffeine has become a routinely intake for millions of us who have early rising hours or just want to stay up late hours finishing work. (U.S. Food and Drug Administration,2018).  The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between caffeine consumption and memory retention. Recent works (Baena et al.,2016) has demonstrated the effects of caffeine on long-term memory retention, but this study will focus on working memory, using the n-Back Task. This study will investigate the use of caffeine and its effects on working memory. N-Back task will allow to record the retention time and accuracy levels on the working memory of each participant and based on that knowledge we can make conclusions based on those results, whether caffeine ingestion has an impact on working memory.

  1. Background

Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance and is obtainable from a variety such as coffee beans and tea leaves. (Baena et al., 2016). The consumption of caffeine amongst college students is at its peak once the semester starts. A 2007 published study by The Nutrition Journal stated 51% of 496 college students regularly ingested caffeine for test preparation (Aeby et al., 2007).  Since with college comes stress, will power and motivation that is required in order to accomplishing tasks which consequently relate one way or another to subconsciously consuming more caffeine. Accordingly, to scientists at U.S. Food and Drug Administration, caffeine although beneficial for a good diet can provide harmful effects if consumed in large amounts (Callaghan et al., 2018).

The increasing use of caffeine has led researchers on understanding the underlying motivations of caffeine consumption: concentration and memory enhancement. A study performed by…. (Armatario et al., 2015) focused primarily on caffeine being a cognitive performance enhancer or a psychoactive drug. Since caffeine includes products that have effects on cardiovascular system and central nervous system, it was of interest for the researchers to analyze whether such effects could be of use or harm towards human health. This was performed through “retrospective, prospective, and transversal (i.2, cross-sectional) studies” of caffeine which examine the mechanisms of use, abuse, dependence and action which might lead to death. Caffeine was also studied with association to possible treatment of “neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.” Individuals who ingested large amount of caffeine dosage reported “psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly anxiety and mood disorders, but also behavioral alterations.” Some reported to experiencing fatigue. “An example is muscle dysmorphia”, a body dysmorphic disorder common in males to achieve a lean and muscular posture at the expense of health. Caffeine intoxication was another aspect studied, known as “caffeinism”, features of this include, angst, fear, restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, psychomotor agitation and death. Researchers concluded that the dangers of caffeine are linked with how the substances is spread out, “which results in an only partially conscious high consumption”. Caffeine as compared to various other psychoactive elements can “induce abuse and dependence” and high concentrations of it is not controlled or restricted in dietary supplements such as tablets.

A more in-depth study done by Malinausksas et al. (Aeby, C. et al., 2007) observed if there were stimuli that would lead to increments of caffeinated items within a college setting. In this study he observed plenty of different stimuli which lead to increased amount of caffeine consumption. Four hundred and ninety-six participants were surveyed, out of which approximately 50% informed consumption of more than 1-2 caffeinated beverages a month. One of the most commonalities for consuming large amounts of caffeine was inconsistent sleeping patterns, exam preparations and anxiety. Pettit & DeBarr (Debarr et al., 2011) performed a similar study to explore association between stress, caffeine consumption and academic performance levels in college students. He surveyed 136 college students and their consumption of caffeine. His study led him to discovering 70% of the participants had on the minimum one caffeinated beverage within the past month. His results showed a positive correlation between subjects’ stress levels and caffeine consumed. But not a positive correlation existed between their caffeinated beverage consumption and academic performance. Both of these studies explained the relationship between caffeine consumption and stress levels.

Caffeine is also linked with increased concentration and attention levels (DeBarr et al., 2011). According to Pettit and DeBarr, after having a caffeinated beverage, college students were more attentive, energetic and clear-minded. This was measured by the means of surveys which included items from Perceived Stress Scale to report demographics, academic performance, and caffeinated beverage consumptions. Another researcher by the name of Yang and his colleagues (Palmer et al., 2010) set out to understand how genetics affects consumption, critical response, and the long-term effects of caffeine. The paper analyzed literature available on genetics of caffeine from : “(1) twin symptoms , caffeine-induced insomnia , and anxiety , (2) association studies linking genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and target receptors to variations in caffeine response, and (3) case-control and prospective studies examining relationship between polymorphisms associated with variation in caffeine response to risk of Parkinson’s and cardiovascular disease in habitual caffeine consumers.” They concluded that an individual’s caffeine preference are genetically related because as people age the genetic influence on caffeine intake varies, at peak of consuming level in adolescent year but it stabilizes as the individual reaches adulthood.

Even though caffeine might provide benefits of consumption, many studies have proven harmful effects. Caffeine is absorbed quickly in the GI tract, so it tends to stay inside the blood stream for approximately 5 hours before metabolized by liver. (Armatario 2015). But caffeine has also been proven to increase physical activity. “As this stimulant comes in handy being an ergogenic aid for improvement in physical activity; it can provide with motivation to complete tasks. “(Panek, 2013). However, there is little to no literature available for the effects of caffeine consumption on cognitive tasks. Short term memory also known as the working memory is our transitory storage warehouse of information. Working memory does not hold the capacity of handling robust amount of information; these limitations are still yet to be discovered. A study performed by James and his research team based their study on (James, J.E., & Keane, M.A 2008) manipulating sleep restriction where caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversals were controlled. The aim of the study was to extend the recent findings of net effects of caffeine and also possible “restorative effects following sleep restriction, on EEG, performance and mood. A cross-over design was made where n = 15 and they alternated weekly between placebo consumption and caffeine, thrice a day for four weeks straight and following sleep restrictions or normal sleep pattern. EEG was tracked of participants during eyes shut and open. The results found did not support the hypothesis and therefore use of caffeine cannot be used as means of “enhancing human function or as an antidote to the negative effects of sleep loss.”

Working memory declines as we age.  So, a great way to measure the capacity of it is through n-back tasks. These tasks are widely used in the aging research. A study performed by Falkenstein, focused on diving a sample (N = 533) of individuals between the ages of 20-80 years into 3 separate groups categorized as young (20-40), middle-aged (41-60) and old (61-80). Then different types of psychometric tests were given to attest and determine attention, memory and “executive control to elucidate the impact of these constructs on n-back performance” (Falkenstein, 2018). Various analyses were then ran . Results showed a gradual increase in reaction times and a decrease in “proportion of detected targets from young to old subjects”.  “Studies in which n-back has been correlated with WMC measures such as reading span tasks or operation span tasks revealed rather weak correlations”. The results indicated age-related reduction in the n-back performance and a drop in most fluid cognitive functions. “This decline begins already in the midlife.”  Furthermore, various other functions such as short and long-term memory or attention were associated with performance levels of middle-aged and older aged participants.

Caffeine consumption questionnaire is a useful tool in studies related caffeine because they help understand the levels of caffeine consumed by individuals but with a standardized number. A study performed by Kristi and Landrum (Landrum, E.R., & Shohet, K.L, 2001)

provided us with great facts about the average intake of caffeine in a sample of 691undergraduates. These participants were given the 1992 Caffeine Consumption Questionnaire and a subset of that group also completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire of Home and Ostberg. The results showed the average of caffeine consumption being around 1,600mg; varying between 13mg – 21,840 milligrams per week. Also concluded with age the number of caffeine intake increased as well, especially with eveningness personality students. Caffeine consumption is an important issue and consistent measurements should be taken and researched upon till this day.

  1. Subject selection:
    1. Subjects will be 101 individuals. The study will be advertised through social media, in class, the library, and Gator Grind.
    2. Selection criteria is of adults 18 years of age and older.
    3. Selection is made on this basis because this study is being conducted on a college campus hence there will be participants at the age of 18 or older.
    4. Aim to collect at least 50 individual subjects and this was determined via research of prior studies that have
  1. Procedures:

The purpose of this study is to see if caffeine consumption and short-term memory retention are likely to be associated by measuring both variables. Request will be put out the Student Life as well as the shared library to set up recruitment tables in Gator Alley and Loyola Notre Dame Library. The informed consent and inventory completion will occur in private testing areas.

After being provided with informed consent in written form in chosen testing areas, participants will be given an n-Back Task on the computer at the designated testing room. The Dual N-Back game is taken on this website: In this game there is a grid (that resembles squares) and a small square involved. Each participant is supposed to match the square containing of the image with the image that is shown a few seconds prior. If a match is found then furthermore instructions are given on the website, such as which keys to proceed with. There is also an auditory section, where each participant is advised to stay attentive, so it is easier going onwards for them to re-call letters from previous steps.

The demographic data collected will include age and gender.

The total time frame of the experiment is to take no longer than 15 minutes in total to complete

  1. Risks and Benefits: There are no benefits promised to the participants. If any of the participants feel uncomfortable giving out information such as the total amount of caffeine consumed or feel embarrassed at any point of the study, they are given the option to withdraw from the study at any time, and will be informed of that fact prior to beginning participation. Each participant will also be told that their answers will not be individually identifiable since there will be no personally identifying information from them.
  2. Confidentiality:

All results will be kept confidential. No identifiable information is being collected. There are no ways of associating an individual’s answers directly to the standardized test they will be taking nor the questionnaire. All results reported are in entirety of a group not individualized. All electronically stored data will be kept only on a password protected computer. Data collected and informed consent forms will be stored securely and separately. More so, forms will be placed in locked closets in the Psychology Department for 3 years, afterwards shredded.

  1. Information and Consent Forms: All participants will sign and receive a copy of an informed consent form prior to completing the surveys. No deception is being employed. See attached consent form.
  1. FERPA Compliance


  1. HIPPA Compliance


  1. Conflict of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  1. Additional Information

No other information is required for this application

Modified Caffeine Consumption Questionnaire:

Beverage Size ( Oz) Caffeine (mg) Average total today.
Coffee 6 125
Decaf 6 5
Espresso 1 50
Tea 6 50
Green Tea 6 20
Hot cocoa 6 15
Energy drink 12 (approximately)237
Caffeinated Soft Drink 12 40-60
Dark chocolate (75-85% cocoa) 3.5 80
Energy shot 1 215
Starbucks tall iced coffee 12 120
Dunkin small iced coffee 10 198
Monster energy drink 8 86
Cliff energy bar (per bar) 50

Total mg of caffeine consumed daily:


Project Title The effect of caffeine on working memory


Why is this research being done? This is a research project being conducted by Saba Rehman at Notre Dame of Maryland University.  The purpose of this research project is to investigate if amounts of caffeine consumption has effects on short term memory retention.
What will I be asked to do? The procedures involve first a standardized memory test followed by a caffeine consumption questionnaire (CCQ) which will be given to participants after taking the memory test. The total amount of time will be no longer than 15 minutes.
What about confidentiality? To help protect your confidentiality the memory tests will be anonymous. At no point of this study will you be asked for any sort of personal information that would identify you. Any data that is collected will only be as a group, not individual outputs so none of your answers will be individually identifiable. The paper copy of CCQs and memory tests will be stored in a locked closet in the Psychology Department and shredded after 3 years. Any electronic data collected will be stored only on a password protected computer.


What are the risks of this research? You may find completing some of the questionnaires mildly uncomfortable or embarrassing. However, you are not required to completely answer any of the questions. You may leave blank any question or survey you do not feel comfortable answering. You may withdraw from participating in the study at any time.
What are the benefits of this research? You will not be compensated for participating in this research.
Do I have to be in this research?

May I stop participating at any time?

Your participation in this research is completely voluntary. You may choose not to take part at all. If you decide to participate in this research, you may stop participating at any time. If you decide not to participate in this study or if you stop participating at any time, you will not be penalized or lose any benefits to which you otherwise qualify.


What if I have questions? This research is being conducted by Saba Rehman in the psychology department at Notre Dame of Maryland University.  If you have any questions about the research study itself, please

Information about the outcome of the study will be provided for you after the study is completed if you contact Saba Rehman.

Statement of Age of Subject and Consent

[Please note: Parental consent always needed for minors.]

Your signature indicates that:

  • you are at least 18 years of age;
  • the research has been explained to you;
  • your questions have been fully answered; and
  • You freely and voluntarily choose to participate in this research project.
Signature and Date

[Please add name, signature, and date lines to the final page of your consent form]



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